Euthanasia revisited | Family Practice | Oxford Academic


euthanasia scholarly articles

known as concept of euthanasia. Meaning of Euthanasia Euthanasia is the intentional killing by act or omission of a dependant human being for his or her alleged benefit [ (visited on March 24, )]. Some how the meaning of Euthanasia is explained in light of suicide while suicide is, many agree, considered. in Chicago-Kent Law Review by an authorized editor of Scholarly Commons @ IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. For more information, please [email protected] Recommended Citation Bruce Vodiga,Euthanasia and the Right to Die—Moral, Ethical and Legal . "Legalizing Euthanasia or Assisted Suicide: the Illusion of Safeguards and Controls" () by Dr. José Pereira, professor at the University of Ottawa and palliative care physician at Bruyère Continuing Care and The Ottawa Hospital in Ottawa, Canada.

Euthanasia—Pro and Con | The Nation

Euthanasia is a debatable issue. It is illegal all over the world. The Netherlands is the only country where euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are openly practised since the physician performing these acts will not be prosecuted under certain circumstances. There were several court cases and court decisions that affected the development of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in individual countries.

When a patient asked for euthanasia, it was very important to find out the underlying reasons and make all legal means available to relieve the pain and other distressing symptoms. Euthanasia revisited. Family Practice ; — In most parts of the world, euthanasia is considered illegal. However, it is openly practised in some areas. The physician performing this act will not be prosecuted under certain circumstances, euthanasia scholarly articles, although it is regarded as illegal under the law in that region.

The country most well known for performing euthanasia is The Netherlands. This article discusses the issues of euthanasia, other related issues and the situations in The Netherlands and other parts of the world. It is not just a medical ethical problem, it also has philosophical, legal, religious and political dimensions. Discussions on this topic are complicated further by misunderstanding and confusion of the terminology. Therefore, it is worthwhile to clarify the definitions first.

What is euthanasia? Classically, euthanasia was defined as the hastening of death of a patient to prevent further sufferings. Within this broad definition, there are several terms used to describe different forms of euthanasia, namely voluntary, involuntary and non-voluntary euthanasia; and active and passive euthanasia, euthanasia scholarly articles. There is no agreement on the precise meaning of these terms. Voluntary euthanasia usually refers to euthanasia with the patient's consent.

The patient has expressed a wish to die and someone performs the act of euthanasia to let him die, euthanasia scholarly articles. Involuntary euthanasia does not involve the patient's consent, euthanasia scholarly articles. The patient is competent to express his will and is able to make a decision, but has not been consulted, and his life is ended by an act of euthanasia.

Non-voluntary euthanasia means that the euthanasia is performed when a patient is not competent to make a decision, for example when the patient is comatosed, mentally insufficient or is not able to express a wish, such as a baby born with severe congenital abnormalities, euthanasia scholarly articles. Active euthanasia refers to euthanasia as a result of someone performing an act such as injection of a lethal drug, whereas passive euthanasia means euthanasia resulting from the omission of an act.

Conventionally, active euthanasia scholarly articles was different from passive euthanasia in that the latter was to withhold or withdraw treatment, euthanasia scholarly articles, while the former was active killing. His argument is that since the outcome is the same and euthanasia scholarly articles acts lead to a patient's death, there is no difference between active and passive euthanasia in terms of the moral aspect, euthanasia scholarly articles.

Passive euthanasia often refers to forgoing life-sustaining treatment in general, but it also denotes an intention to kill. Since this term was misleading and caused unnecessary confusion and misunderstanding, it was not used in official discussions on euthanasia in major western countries. There are other terms which are important in the discussion of euthanasia.

They are physician-assisted suicide, withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, euthanasia scholarly articles, and medical futility. Physician-assisted suicide means that the physician provides the means by which the patient can end his life.

Usually, the physician will prescribe a lethal drug which is administrated by the patient himself. Throughout the world, the Northern Territory of Australia was the first place that physician-assisted suicide had ever been legal until the Rights of the Terminally Ill Bill was overturned in Withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment simply means that the physician forgoes the life-sustaining treatment for a terminally ill patient taking into account the patient's benefit, euthanasia scholarly articles, the wishes of the patient and family, and the futility of treatment.

It is legally acceptable and appropriate. What does medical futility mean? There is no agreement on the definition of medical futility. Some authors tried to define this term in two aspects, quantitatively and qualitatively. Schneiderman et al. It means that the treatment has less than a 1 in chance of benefiting the patient. The qualitative portion of the definition stipulated that if a treatment merely preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care, physicians should consider the treatment futile.

It was the first publicly acknowledged euthanasia society in the world and was organized to campaign for the legalization of euthanasia. In the next year, a bill to legalize euthanasia was debated in the House of Lords in the Euthanasia scholarly articles, but it was rejected. Nevertheless, the Second World War changed the atmosphere of discussion on euthanasia.

The victims were gassed or poisoned. The debate became silent for a long period until the s. In the s and early s, the discussion on euthanasia became a more extensive academic debate 7 and a point of public contention, especially in The Netherlands.

These became the cornerstones in the development of euthanasia in the world. The following sections discuss the experience and development of euthanasia around the world, especially The Netherlands, Australia, the USA and the UK. The Netherlands is the only country where euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are practised openly. Although both euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are still subject to criminal law, euthanasia scholarly articles, the physicians will not be prosecuted if they perform these acts in accordance with the formal regulation.

Inthe Royal Dutch Medical Association stated that physicians performing euthanasia and assisted suicide would not be prosecuted if they met the following requirements: i the request by euthanasia scholarly articles patient must be voluntary, durable and persistent; ii the patient was fully informed about the medical condition and the prognosis, and there was no other alternative treatment available; iii the patient had unbearable suffering s ; and iv the physician had consulted with another physician.

The State Commission on Euthanasia published its report in The proposal was similar to the for-mer statements that the physician performing euthanasia should not be punished by law under certain circumstances.

Based on the guidelines developed inthe physician was also requested to report the case as euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide to the medical examiner by means of an extensive questionnaire, but not as a case of natural death.

The medical examiner then reported to the public prosecutor who would decide whether a prosecution should start. The Remmelink Committee, set up by the Dutch government inappointed van de Maas and his colleagues to provide the information of euthanasia practice in The Netherlands. Euthanasia scholarly articles were 22 cases of alleviation of pain and symptoms with high dosage of opioids, representing There were 22 cases of death resulting from a non-treatment decision, representing There were cases of death resulting from administration of a drug with the explicit intention to shorten the patient's life, without the strict criteria for euthanasia being fulfilled, euthanasia scholarly articles.

This represented 0. In the remaining cases, alternatives were found that had made life bearable again or the patient died before any action had been taken.

This could be illustrated by the Chabot case, the Prins case and the Kadijk case, euthanasia scholarly articles. Dr Chabot, a psychiatrist, helped a physically fit patient with a history of depression for 20 years to commit suicide by prescribing a lethal drug in The Dutch Supreme Court found Dr Chabot guilty as charged euthanasia scholarly articles because he had not ensured that the patient was actually examined by another doctor before he assisted her suicide.

The court stated that defence of necessity was not limited to cases where the suffering of the patient was of somatic origin, it could also apply to patients with entirely non-somatic suffering. The Prins case and the Euthanasia scholarly articles case demonstrated the controversy further.

InDr Prins gave a lethal injection to a baby girl born with a partly formed brain and spina bifida, after consulting her parents and other physicians. Inthe District Court in Alkmaar refused to punish him. In the Kadijk case, a physician was charged with murder for administrating a lethal injection to a severely disabled baby. The court reached an almost identical conclusion to that in the Prins case, euthanasia scholarly articles.

After these cases, the Royal Dutch Medical Association adopted a new guideline for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in Based on the former guideline, it also required expert advice from at least one other independent physician, who must have examined the euthanasia scholarly articles personally and written a report.

This bill is still awaiting approval from the Euthanasia scholarly articles Parliament. In Aprilthe Dutch senate passed a bill to allow euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

It made The Netherlands the first country to legalize the practice formally. The Northern Territory of Australia was the first place in the world to pass laws allowing a physician to end the life of a terminally ill patient.

This act then became law on 1 July Under the Act, the consent of two doctors and a psychiatrist was required. The patient had to be aged 18 or over, with a sound mind and suffering from a terminal illness with an unacceptable amount of pain or suffering. The physician who assisted a patient in terminating his life would not be subject to civil or criminal action or professional disciplinary action for anything done in good faith and without negligence in compliance with this Act. Mr Bob Dent, euthanasia scholarly articles, a year-old Euthanasia scholarly articles resident suffering from carcinoma of the prostate, became the first person in the world to die under euthanasia legislation.

On 22 SeptemberDr Philip Nitschke, the leading supporter of euthanasia in the Territory, helped him to die with a computer-linked machine that allowed the patient to administer the lethal injection by himself.

Mrs Janet Mills, euthanasia scholarly articles, a year-old lady suffering from mycosis fungoides, was the second patient to die under the Act with the assistance of Dr Nitschke. This brought the end of the world's first law legalizing euthanasia. In the USA, withholding and withdrawing life sustaining-treatment was the euthanasia scholarly articles focus of discussion in the s and s.

InKaren Ann Quinlan, euthanasia scholarly articles, a year-old woman, went into a coma. She was put on a ventilator for breathing. Because of her persistent vegetative state, the family members began to request to discontinue the ventilator support, euthanasia scholarly articles.

Eventually, the court decided that if there was no chance of Karen ever becoming conscious, euthanasia scholarly articles, the life support system could be removed. Ineuthanasia scholarly articles, there was euthanasia scholarly articles Nancy Cruzan case, in which the young lady was in a persistent vegetative state for 4 years.

Her life was maintained by artificial hydration and nutrition. The US Supreme Court decided not to allow discontinuation of the treatment since there was no clear and convincing evidence that she would want euthanasia scholarly articles treatment to be discontinued.

However, the court stated that euthanasia scholarly articles states could not ignore the expressed wishes of patient when satisfactory evidence was presented. In the s, there was more debate on the issues of physician-assisted suicide, especially after considerable publicity given to Dr Jack Kevorkian.

Dr Kevorkian, a retired pathologist, euthanasia scholarly articles, first assisted a patient with Alzheimer's disease euthanasia scholarly articles commit suicide in Michigan in June He claimed that he had assisted more than deaths. He escalated his practice from assisting suicide to direct killing in the case of Thomas Youk, a patient suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.


Scholarly papers lectures euthanasia assisted suicide


euthanasia scholarly articles


This paper explores and analyze the arguments in support and against euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. For the purpose of this article has been viewed over the Internet and Google total of journal articles, book chapters and websites, and, in writing of this article we used 74 references cited in . in Chicago-Kent Law Review by an authorized editor of Scholarly Commons @ IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. For more information, please [email protected] Recommended Citation Bruce Vodiga,Euthanasia and the Right to Die—Moral, Ethical and Legal . The peer-reviewed literature includes numerous well-informed opinions on the topics of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. However, there is a paucity of commentary on the interface of these issues with medical education. This is surprising, given the universal assumption that in the event of Cited by: 7.